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Faceted Search. New Concepts in Digital Reference. Events in this style typically only last a few hours and require relatively little preparation by players and are sometimes played at gaming conventions. Some murder mystery games where players are assigned characters and encouraged to roleplay freely also resemble theatre-style LARP. Some very large events known as fests short for festival have hundreds or thousands of participants who are usually split into competing character factions camped separately around a large venue. There are only a few fests in the world, all based in Europe and Canada; however, their size means that they have a significant influence on local LARP culture and design.

While some LARPs are open to participants of all ages, others have a minimum age requirement. There are also youth LARPs, specifically intended for children and young people. Some are run through institutions such as schools, churches, or the Scouts. Denmark has an especially high number of youth LARPs. Roleplaying may be seen as part of a movement in Western culture towards participatory arts, as opposed to traditional spectator arts. LARP is not well known in most countries and is sometimes confused with other role-playing, reenactment, costuming, or dramatic activities.

While fan and gamer culture in general has become increasingly mainstream in developed countries, LARP has often not achieved the same degree of cultural acceptability. This may be due to intolerance of the resemblance to childhood games of pretend, a perceived risk of over-identification with the characters, and the absence of mass marketing. It is often shown in a positive light in mainstream media, with an emphasis on the dramatic and creative aspects. Communities have formed around the creation, play and discussion of LARP.

These communities have developed a subculture that crosses over with role-playing, fan, reenactment, and drama subcultures.

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LARP has been a subject of academic research and theory. Much of this research originates from role-players, especially from the publications of the Nordic Knutepunkt role-playing conventions. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Larp disambiguation. Main article: History of live action role-playing games. Embodiment means that the physical actions of the player are regarded as those of the character. LARP participants may dress in the costume of their character and carry appropriate physical props e. Whereas in a RPG played by a group sitting around a table, players describe the actions of their characters e.

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Most importantly, we treat 'larp' as a word in its own right, not an acronym L. Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals. The MIT Press. Live-Action Role-Playing Games can take place in indoor or outdoor settings, in private or public spaces. In Markus Montola, Jaakko Stenros ed. Playground Worlds. Ropecon ry. The character's costume and accessories, or kit, aids this transformation Physical structures may be used as game locations, and sometimes even purposely constructed to enhance the game world Players frequently use physical artifacts as props and tools in their role-play, primarily to back up their character roles.

In essence, the GM creates the magical circle around the game. The GM can also be responsible of [ sic ] hunting down cheaters or other rule breakers. The GM is generally, unless the LARP is small in terms of number of participants, not responsible for keeping the narrative flow.


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The GM can however oversee the progress of the game and help or influence where needed Establishing a hierarchy of GMs and NPCs to monitor the game and ensure everyone is entertained and activated within the shared game space is a typical way of controlling large fantasy LARPS. This structure is usually established before the game commences. Though not all games will require them, it is occasionally necessary to have a support staff to help coordinate events and NPCs as a stage manager or running crew might. The physical performance necessary to pull off a performance in a LARP makes it impractical for a single person to handle many NPC roles.

As a result, there is often a cast of characters who take on the roles of other NPCs. Unlike the players, the NPCs usually know the game's plot and have some idea of the narrative.

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NPCs, then, are a form of pseudo-player. They play the game, their characters have somewhat more limited goals, but they are ultimately constrained by the plot. Players from all of these continents claim to have hosted the oldest LARP, however, it appears that LARPs developed independently and with marked cultural differences.


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  6. Knudepunkt Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved Dagorhir website. Archived from the original on John Kenneth Muir website. IFGS website. LARP Writing. In , Walt Frietag and some friends at Harvard University "invented" what they called "interactive literature.

    Frietag called his group the "Harvard Society for Interactive Literature", which was shortened to "Society for Interactive Literature" the next year.

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    Die Entwicklung realer Kompetenzen in virtuellen Welten in German. Tectum Verlag. Since the year there are two organisers who hold about once a year the so-called "big Cons" where there are no maximum limits to the number of participants and in which there are usually between three and seven thousand live action role-players including people from around Europe.

    Synthesis Lectures on Information Concepts, Retrieval, and Services

    Retrieved April 25, Professional, full-time LARP sites also exist As Larp Grows Up. Role Playing Materials. Maastricht University.