Link Either by signing into your account or linking your membership details before your order is placed. Description Table of Contents Product Details Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book! Industry Reviews This book is admirable for the subtlety yet clarity of its argument, for the density of underlying archival research, and for the breadth of its historiographical span.
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All Rights Reserved. In Stock. On Eating Meat. The Australian Beekeeping Manual. A Guide to Native Bees of Australia. Who's Minding the Farm? In this climate emergency. In some cases, the former European imperial nations continue to foster close political and economic ties with former colonies. The Commonwealth of Nations is an organisation that promotes cooperation between and among Britain and its former colonies, the Commonwealth members.
A similar organisation exists for former colonies of France, the Francophonie ; the Community of Portuguese Language Countries plays a similar role for former Portuguese colonies, and the Dutch Language Union is the equivalent for former colonies of the Netherlands. Migration from former colonies has proven to be problematic for European countries, where the majority population may express hostility to ethnic minorities who have immigrated from former colonies.
Cultural and religious conflict have often erupted in France in recent decades, between immigrants from the Maghreb countries of north Africa and the majority population of France. Encounters between explorers and populations in the rest of the world often introduced new diseases, which sometimes caused local epidemics of extraordinary virulence. Disease killed the entire native Guanches population of the Canary Islands in the 16th century. Half the native population of Hispaniola in was killed by smallpox.
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Smallpox also ravaged Mexico in the s, killing , in Tenochtitlan alone, including the emperor, and Peru in the s, aiding the European conquerors. Measles killed a further two million Mexican natives in the 17th century. Introduced diseases, notably smallpox, nearly wiped out the native population of Easter Island. Conversely, researchers have hypothesised that a precursor to syphilis may have been carried from the New World to Europe after Columbus 's voyages.
The findings suggested Europeans could have carried the nonvenereal tropical bacteria home, where the organisms may have mutated into a more deadly form in the different conditions of Europe. Ten thousand British troops and countless Indians died during this pandemic. As early as , the Spanish Crown organised a mission the Balmis expedition to transport the smallpox vaccine to the Spanish colonies , and establish mass vaccination programs there. The conquest of vast territories brings multitudes of diverse cultures under the central control of the imperial authorities.
From the time of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome, this fact has been addressed by empires adopting the concept of universalism, and applying it to their imperial policies towards their subjects far from the imperial capitol. The capitol, the metropole, was the source of ostensibly enlightened policies imposed throughout the distant colonies.
The empire that grew from Greek conquest, particularly by Alexander the Great , spurred the spread of Greek language, religion, science and philosophy throughout the colonies.
While most Greeks considered their own culture superior to all others the word barbarian is derived from mutterings that sounded to Greek ears like "bar-bar" , Alexander was unique in promoting a campaign to win the hearts and minds of the Persians. He adopted Persian customs of clothing and otherwise encouraged his men to go native by adopting local wives and learning their mannerisms. Of note is that he radically departed from earlier Greek attempts at colonisation, characterised by the murder and enslavement of the local inhabitants and the settling of Greek citizens from the polis.
Roman universalism was characterised by cultural and religious tolerance and a focus on civil efficiency and the rule of law. Roman law was imposed on both Roman citizens and colonial subjects.
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Although Imperial Rome had no public education , Latin spread through its use in government and trade. Roman law prohibited local leaders to wage war between themselves, which was responsible for the year long Pax Romana , at the time the longest period of peace in history. The Roman Empire was tolerant of diverse cultures and religious practises, even allowing them on a few occasions to threaten Roman authority.
Settlers acted as the link between indigenous populations and the imperial hegemony, thus bridging the geographical, ideological and commercial gap between the colonisers and colonised.
While the extent in which geography as an academic study is implicated in colonialism is contentious, geographical tools such as cartography , shipbuilding , navigation , mining and agricultural productivity were instrumental in European colonial expansion. Colonisers' awareness of the Earth's surface and abundance of practical skills provided colonisers with a knowledge that, in turn, created power.
Anne Godlewska and Neil Smith argue that "empire was 'quintessentially a geographical project ' ". Political geographers also maintain that colonial behaviour was reinforced by the physical mapping of the world, therefore creating a visual separation between "them" and "us". Geographers are primarily focused on the spaces of colonialism and imperialism; more specifically, the material and symbolic appropriation of space enabling colonialism.
Maps played an extensive role in colonialism, as Bassett would put it "by providing geographical information in a convenient and standardised format, cartographers helped open West Africa to European conquest, commerce, and colonisation". Social norms and values had an effect on the constructing of maps.
During colonialism map-makers used rhetoric in their formation of boundaries and in their art. The rhetoric favoured the view of the conquering Europeans; this is evident in the fact that any map created by a non-European was instantly regarded as inaccurate.
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Furthermore, European cartographers were required to follow a set of rules which led to ethnocentrism; portraying one's own ethnicity in the centre of the map. As Harley would put it "The steps in making a map — selection, omission, simplification, classification, the creation of hierarchies, and 'symbolisation' — are all inherently rhetorical. A common practice by the European cartographers of the time was to map unexplored areas as "blank spaces". This influenced the colonial powers as it sparked competition amongst them to explore and colonise these regions.
Imperialists aggressively and passionately looked forward to filling these spaces for the glory of their respective countries. David Livingstone stresses "that geography has meant different things at different times and in different places" and that we should keep an open mind in regards to the relationship between geography and colonialism instead of identifying boundaries. A colony is a part of an empire and so colonialism is closely related to imperialism. Assumptions are that colonialism and imperialism are interchangeable, however Robert J.
Young suggests that imperialism is the concept while colonialism is the practice. Colonialism is based on an imperial outlook, thereby creating a consequential relationship. Through an empire, colonialism is established and capitalism is expanded, on the other hand a capitalist economy naturally enforces an empire. In the next section Marxists make a case for this mutually reinforcing relationship. Marxism views colonialism as a form of capitalism, enforcing exploitation and social change. Marx thought that working within the global capitalist system, colonialism is closely associated with uneven development.
It is an "instrument of wholesale destruction, dependency and systematic exploitation producing distorted economies, socio-psychological disorientation, massive poverty and neocolonial dependency".
Colonialism - Wikipedia
The search for raw materials and the current search for new investment opportunities is a result of inter-capitalist rivalry for capital accumulation. Lenin regarded colonialism as the root cause of imperialism, as imperialism was distinguished by monopoly capitalism via colonialism and as Lyal S. Sunga explains: "Vladimir Lenin advocated forcefully the principle of self-determination of peoples in his "Theses on the Socialist Revolution and the Right of Nations to Self-Determination" as an integral plank in the programme of socialist internationalism" and he quotes Lenin who contended that "The right of nations to self-determination implies exclusively the right to independence in the political sense, the right to free political separation from the oppressor nation.
Specifically, this demand for political democracy implies complete freedom to agitate for secession and for a referendum on secession by the seceding nation. In his critique of colonialism in Africa, the Guyanese historian and political activist Walter Rodney states:. According to Lenin , the new imperialism emphasised the transition of capitalism from free trade to a stage of monopoly capitalism to finance capital.
He states it is, "connected with the intensification of the struggle for the partition of the world". As free trade thrives on exports of commodities, monopoly capitalism thrived on the export of capital amassed by profits from banks and industry. This, to Lenin, was the highest stage of capitalism. He goes on to state that this form of capitalism was doomed for war between the capitalists and the exploited nations with the former inevitably losing.
War is stated to be the consequence of imperialism. As a continuation of this thought G. Uzoigwe states, "But it is now clear from more serious investigations of African history in this period that imperialism was essentially economic in its fundamental impulses.
Fox and William Ewart Gladstone. During the colonial era, the global process of colonisation served to spread and synthesize the social and political belief systems of the "mother-countries" which often included a belief in a certain natural racial superiority of the race of the mother-country. Colonialism also acted to reinforce these same racial belief systems within the "mother-countries" themselves. Usually also included within the colonial belief systems was a certain belief in the inherent superiority of male over female, however this particular belief was often pre-existing amongst the pre-colonial societies, prior to their colonisation.
European studies along these lines gave rise to the perception that African women's anatomy, and especially genitalia, resembled those of mandrills, baboons, and monkeys, thus differentiating colonised Africans from what were viewed as the features of the evolutionarily superior, and thus rightfully authoritarian, European woman. In addition to what would now be viewed as pseudo-scientific studies of race, which tended to reinforce a belief in an inherent mother-country racial superiority, a new supposedly "science-based" ideology concerning gender roles also then emerged as an adjunct to the general body of beliefs of inherent superiority of the colonial era.
Within the former European colonies, non-Europeans and women sometimes faced invasive studies by the colonial powers in the interest of the then prevailing pro-colonial scientific ideology of the day. Several scholars in recent decades developed the notion of the "other" as an epistemological concept in social theory. Post-colonialism or post-colonial theory can refer to a set of theories in philosophy and literature that grapple with the legacy of colonial rule.
In this sense, one can regard post-colonial literature as a branch of postmodern literature concerned with the political and cultural independence of peoples formerly subjugated in colonial empires. Writers of post-colonial fiction interact with the traditional colonial discourse , but modify or subvert it; for instance by retelling a familiar story from the perspective of an oppressed minor character in the story.
In A Critique of Postcolonial Reason , Spivak argued that major works of European metaphysics such as those of Kant and Hegel not only tend to exclude the subaltern from their discussions, but actively prevent non-Europeans from occupying positions as fully human subjects. Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit , famous for its explicit ethnocentrism, considers Western civilisation as the most accomplished of all, while Kant also had some traces of racialism in his work. The field of colonistics studies colonialism from such viewpoints as those of economics, sociology and psychology.
In explaining his position, he says "I admit that it is a good thing to place different civilisations in contact with each other that it is an excellent thing to blend different worlds; that whatever its own particular genius may be, a civilisation that withdraws into itself atrophies; that for civilisations, exchange is oxygen.
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To illustrate his point, he explains that colonisation relies on racist and xenophobic frameworks that dehumanise the targets of colonisation and justify their extreme and brutal mistreatment. Every time an immoral act perpetrated by colonisers onto the colonised is justified by racist, sexist, otherwise xenophobic, or capitalist motivations to subjugate a group of people, the colonising civilisation "acquires another dead weight, a universal regression takes place, a gangrene sets in, a centre of infection begins to spread.
Thusly, colonisation is damaging to the civilisations that participate as perpetrators in a way that is internally harmful. The YouGov survey found that British people are mostly proud of colonialism and the British Empire : .